English / ქართული / русский /
Ramaz Abesadze
"OPEN INNOVATION", "OPEN SCIENCE", NATIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM AND ITS MODELS

Annotation. The paper examines the current strategic directions in the innovation policy of the European Union - "open innovation", "open science" and "openness to the world". On this basis, the essence of the national innovation system and their models at the modern stage have been studied. Keywords:Open innovation, open science, openness to the world, innovation systeminnovations  Innovations Innovation (English innovation) comes from the Latin "Innovatio", which means "renewal". The prefix "In" is translated in Latin as "in the direction". Therefore, the word "Innovatio" means "in the direction of renewal". Indeed, the main essence of innovation lies in updating, introducing something more progressive. The term innovation in economics was first introduced by the Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter [Шумпетер Й. A. 1989.], however, essentially, it was used by another term even before that. Adam Smith pointed out that the role of the organizational mechanism of
2022-11-04
Davit Aslanishvili
MODERN METHODS OF SMALL BUSINESS FINANCING: WORLD EXPERIENCE

Annotation.Entrepreneurship and business play a special role in economic life, with small and medium-sized businesses being the central link. This study describes the methods and ways of financing small and medium business activities at the current stage and their characteristics. Keywords: IPO, Small Business Investment Companies, Angel Investors,  Mezzanine Financing, Royalty financing, Venture Capital, Crowdfunding  The main problem for small and medium business owners in the modern economy is to finance their own business, which is due to the relatively high risk of their business activities compared to large corporations. There are a number of possible sources of funding for small business financing that differ from one another. It is also accompanied by a variety of government and private business approaches and funding formats.There are also grants made by government, corporations, and other entities, as well as equity capital from SBICs and angel investors. There
2022-11-04
Givi Bedianashvili
Climate change uncertainties and Economic Growth

Summary  The work presents the challenges related to the uncertainty of climate change under the modern features of globalization. The global nature of the problem of climate change is analyzed, and the negative dynamics of climate change in Georgia and the neighboring countries of the Caucasus in recent decades - the tendency of the average annual temperature to increase. Decarbonization is highlighted as the urgency of transitioning from fossil fuel-based energy resources with zero carbon emissions to fuels based on renewable energy sources. It is noted that the use of renewable energy sources reduces the emission of greenhouse gases, and ensures a substantial reduction in the level of air pollution in cities. Taking into account the growing trend of climate change uncertainty, based on the requirements of ensuring sustainable development, the great importance of correct determination of the relationship between climate policy and economic growth is noted. In addition,
2022-11-04
George Berulava
THE EMPLOYMENT GROWTH ACROSS GEORGIAN REGIONS: URBAN-RURAL LINKAGE CONTEXT[1]

Annotation. The study explores the employment growth patterns across Georgian regions in the context of urban-rural linkages and applying the shift-share analysis. The results of the study show that during the recent decade Georgia experienced employment growth in all industry sectors driven primary by national share component. There was revealed mixed effects of industry and regional competitive components on employment growth across sectors and regions. The common trend across regions was negative industry mix and regional shift effects on Utility and Health sectors, However, in general, both sectors grew due to compensating national share effect.  The shift-share analysis revealed interesting rural-urban sectoral linkages in some Georgian regions. The shift-share analysis clearly identified allocation efficiency and the comparative advantage of each Georgian region across various industries and laid foundation for elaboration of recommendations for policy
2022-11-04
Vakhtang Burduli
BACKGROUND AND DIRECTIONS OF INNOVATIVE RESTRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY STRUCTURE OF THE ECONOMY OF GEORGIA UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF A NEW TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION

Summary  The paper considers the factors hindering the implementation of innovations in the sectors of the Georgian economy in the context of a new technological revolution (the process of transition to a new technological order) and the prerequisites for overcoming them. The technologies of the key factor of the new technological order (that is, the most relevant technologies that provide a new technological revolution) and the main supporting industries are systematized. Further, a strategy for restructuring the sectoral structure of the Georgian economy in the light of solving the problems of a new technological revolution is proposed and justified by implementing relevant basic and improving innovations in the energy sector and in a number of industrial subsectors (electrotechnical industry, production of composite materials and products from them, metallurgical industry, information and communication technologies, transport engineering, light industry) of
2022-11-04
Murman Kvaratskhelia
GENESIS OF ECONOMIC CRISES

Summary  Studying the genesis of crises is always relevant. In the article the nature and peculiarities of economic crises, the causes of their origin are
2022-11-04
Tea LazarashviliIrine Mamaladze
ECONOMIC GROWTH AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION

Summary  The problem of poverty has always been and remains the most difficult problem to solve. It should be noted that in each era, poverty was characterized by specific forms and manifestations, which were determined by the history and traditions of the state. A significant concern for the poor is relevant only for an economically and socially developed society. Poverty is a complex, multifaceted problem, the causes of which are both national and international in nature. It is difficult to find a universal way to solve this problem, which could be used on a global level. In solving this problem, the programs of specific countries aimed at overcoming poverty should play an important role, although international efforts supporting the measures to be carried out at the national level are also needed. Key words: poverty, standard of living, economic development, economic
2022-11-04
Nugzar Paichadze
JAPANESE EXPERIENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Summary  The article deals with such issues as the Japanese philosophy of Japanese Experience in Human Resource Management    and the basic strategy of its model. The article pays special attention to such issues that are implied in the Japanese paradigm: training, improving motivation and teamwork practices, the importance of having a friendly relationship between managers and ordinary workers, issues of the usefulness of job compensation. Key words: Human Resource Management, System of  “Permanent Employment”, Japanese Philosophy And Politics,  strategy of the Japanese model of human resource
2022-11-04
Vladimer Papava
ON SOME MODIFICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

Summary  Since 2020, the global economy has been influenced by such non-economic phenomena as the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's war in Ukraine and economic sanctions imposed by the West against Russia. Due to the rupture of global supply chains during the pandemic, the erroneous impression that the process of globalization has ended, and the process of de-globalization and isolationism has begun. What actually took place was not deglobalization, but pseudo-deglobalization. Based on the global nature of the pandemic, overcoming it is possible only with a global approach. And isolationism is useless in overcoming the pandemic. Economic development in the post-pandemic period is possible only with a global approach to the world economy. At the same time, the new contours of globalization must necessarily take into account the issues of economic security. First of all, we are talking about energy and food security. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the so-called turbulent
2022-11-04
Avtandil SulaberidzeVladimer SulaberidzeVano Shushtakashvili
THE DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN GEORGIA

Summary  In this article, we analyze the consequences derived from the changes in demographic behavior under conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic during 2019-2020 in Georgia. According to these results, the regress of demographic development is noted. Studying the societal loss caused by the pandemic in depth and coming up with preventative measures are something that take place on the agenda. The urgency of the issue is strengthened not only by manifestation of the peculiarities of the pandemic, but also analysis of the possible scenarios and trends of the post-pandemic period in regional terms. In this regard, we have presented the demographic-statistical analysis of corona demography, which is one of the fields of pandemology in the direction of the demography of pandemics, during the short period of the pandemic, according to separate demographic processes. The research reveals that if the state does not implement an active demographic policy, the demographic collapse, which
2022-11-04
Teimuraz Shengelia
METHODOLOGY OF THE EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES

Summary  Social capital is a complex of human relationships that undergoes conversion into the other forms of the  capital. Having such capital in an international company helps to increase the efficiency of its activities. In the process of measuring social capital at the international company level, it is  an  important to determine who enjoys with  the right to use social capital - an individual or an organization. The answer to  this question is ambiguous. On the one hand, the social capital of an organization cannot exist without its indivds. On the other hand, the social capital of the organization, even though it consists of the individual social capital of the employees, belongs to the organization as a whole, and is reflected in the good reputation of the company in the market. Social capital is a complex methodological construction, it includes three interrelated components: trust, social interaction (networks), norms and rules (culture). All
2022-11-04
Revaz Javakhishvili
THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

Summary  Economic security is the main determinant of national security. The term "national security" was introduced into the political and public circulation for the first time by the US President T. Roosevelt in 1904. In 1934, a governmental committee was created in the USA, whose main task was to ensure socio-economic stability and security in the state. Later, the "Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe - OSCE" was created, which unites 56 countries of Europe, North America and Central Asia, whose main function, along with the political one, is to deepen the economic cooperation of the countries included in the union and ensure its security. The paper analyzes the essence, levels and structural elements of economic security: economic independence, sustainable development and stability of the national economy, the essence of self-development progress. Factors affecting economic security, internal and external threats, their causes and ways of overcoming them are
2022-11-04
George Abashidze
A DIGITAL ECONOMY – ASSESSMENT OF THE DIGITAL READINESS OF GEORGIA[1]

Summary  A digital economy is an economy based on digital technologies. It has become impossible to identify a direction that is not based on digital technologies. All sectors of the economy have undergone significant changes in recent years. Adoption of digital technologies and digital transformation have fundamentally changed manufacturing processes, organizational relationships, forms of customer communication, and how consumers receive products and services. The COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated the process of digital transformation, making it an even more pressing issue for countries to ensure rapid preparation and adaptation. The importance of digital technology development is also mentioned in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, which state that access to information and communication technologies, adoption of digital technologies, and the elimination of digital inequality are key factors in ensuring sustainable development. Individual countries'
2022-11-04
Khatuna Berishvili
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF BUSINESS AS A SOFTENED FORM OF COLLECTIVISM

Summary Conception of corporate social responsibility is relatively new step in entrepreneurship history. Views expressed by businessmen about the social responsibility of business bring additional prestige to them in the short period. Doctrine of corporate social responsibility has become an essential part of corporate culture for many companies and it significantly changes the  capitalistic structure of economy.  In the context of corporate social responsibility field of influence includes environmental problems and reducing of poverty.  Ultimately these actions are aimed at achieving better world. This is important question and changes the role of firms in market economy.  Doctrine of corporate social responsibility implies that managers not only are directed to solve problems that will eventually lead us to better world but they also know how and using what ways to solve these problems. This is extremely audacious assumption. We know that managers are people
2022-11-04
Tamaz GamsakhurdiaTeimuraz Pestvenidze
MANAGER’S WISE DECISION IS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR OF EFFICIENCY

Summary  The paper discusses that in a country where laws are enacted and human’s fundamental rights are protected, the government is working day in and day out to improve the country's welfare and it’s living conditions. And each person cares for the formation and development of a high society.  People have conditions to  perform consciously  both personal and state duties. When a citizen feels responsibility before the law, then the government together with the members of the society will be able to solve the problems  the country is facing. It is also emphasized, that domestic enemies have violated a number of tangible and intangible values ​​of the country and what is the most painful is that we have lost a number of territories of the country. Special attention is paid to the reasonable and efficient use of the Georgian brand "Borjomi" and other mineral waters for the country. It is also mentioned that in the case of a sharp
2022-11-04
Nestan Varshanidze
THE CURRENT TENDENCIES AND CHALLENGES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BLUE ECONOMY

Summary  This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli National Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG) [grant number MR-21-1059], Supervisor of the paper: Natela Tsiklashvili, Professor of Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University. This paper discusses the Blue Economy, which responds to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (Goal 1; 8; 14:15; 17). Modern world faces many challenges related to sustainable economic solutions and management systems. The article presents the various databases related to the blue economy and its research. Economics is the science that studies how people meet ever-increasing needs in the face of limited resources. The world's oceans, seas and water resources are vital, a source of livelihood for billions of people, and involved in a variety of economic activities. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the peculiarities and problematic issues of the blue economy and data related to its research in the world and in Georgia. Also,to identify and evaluate the
2022-11-04
Khatuna Tabagari
CHALLENGES OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY (DEVELOPMENT) IN GEORGIA (REVIEW)

Annotation.The digital economy became actual after spreading the covid-19 virus in the world, and in Georgia, as well. In this paper, there is explained the historical background of the development of the digital economy. Then there is discussed the experiences of several countries in this field. And at the same moment here is explained the attempts to develop Georgian digital economy, there are detailly analysed digital consumption and supplement sides. There are figured out some defects and, in the end,there are given several recommendations to solve these ones. Keywords: Digital Economy, Georgia, Internet, Trade, Online Service.  Introduction The digital economy is a part of the economy; it is created by using digital technology with the digital models of digital goods and services. The spread of the Covid-19 virus has spurred new opportunities for economic development. Social distance protection, stay-at-home policies, activation of delivery services, and other activities
2022-11-04
Eter KakuliaTeimuraz Gogokhia
COVID-19 -PANDEMIC: CONSEQUENCES OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN GEORGIA

Summary  The paper examines the issues of financial support/cooperation in overcoming the crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic from the point of view of the business sector. Funds raised are considered as a result of the covid-19 pandemic. The data declared by the State Department of Statistics are analyzed according to the period (pre-pandemic and pandemic period) and business forms (large, medium and small) such as economic indicators such as;  income; release of products; number of employees; number of employees; Average monthly salary of employees. During the pandemic period, according to the indicators listed above, the results of the business sector, especially medium and small businesses, are highlighted during the strict conditions of the pandemic regulation. Small businesses in particular have been shown to suffer under strict pandemic control measures.  The opinion is expressed that in managing the pandemic, strict restrictions should not be introduced on
2022-11-04
DAVID KBILASHVILI
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN GEORGIAN WINE INDUSTRY

Summary The article discusses the attitude of wine companies of Georgia towards the corporate social responsibility
2022-11-04
Gela Lobjanidze
GLOBALMINERALRESOURCES BUSINESS TRENDS AND PROSPECTS

Summary  The article discusses the global trends in the rational and optimal use of mineral resources and current aspects of effective use of its individual types in business, the world's leading countries in the field of natural resources. Among them, according to the value of mineral resources in 2021. Also analyzed are the revenue reports of the 40 largest mining companies in the world 2019-2021, the ranking of the leading mining companies in 2021 by revenue, the net profit margin of the best mining companies in the world from 2002 to 2020, the forecast of prices of some mining products until 2025, as well as the demand for mineral resources, taking into account the main directions of optimal solution of critical challenges and effective development. It is proposed to produce minerals and metals responsibly, to use them safely in ethical business practices and to sustain other important global trends in order to promote sustainable economic growth in times and conditions of
2022-11-04
Ilia (Aziko) Sisvadze
THE THEORY OF WELFARE STATE: ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION

Summary  The article discusses the theory of Welfare state, its origin and
2022-11-04
Leila Ghudushauril
OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

Summary  Adequate operational risk management in modern banking practice is one of the most important factors in a balanced banking risk management system. Therefore, it is quite natural that the Basel Committee has recently paid special attention to the study of operational risk factors and issues of their rational management. The article discusses and analyzes the operational risk factors of a commercial bank, modern methods of its assessment and management, and expresses an opinion on their further improvement.    Keywords: Basel Committee; Operational risk factors; Operational risk management methods: Basic indicator approach; Standardised approach; Advanced measurement approaches (AMA).   In banking practice, operational risk is the risk that the bank will incur losses as a result of internal control systems (mechanical or deliberate fraud committed by employees, technical and software errors) and external factors. External factors include litigation with
2022-11-04
Marine Tsutskiridze
THE INOVATIVEPERSPEQTIVE BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROCESS

Summary  The paper discusses the innovative perspectives of total business development in the process integration and globalization, this is analysed ssissues of innovation business development in the total production and servise system, the papier cussiders the inproduction of new total business development of the basiss of modern the
2022-11-04
Zurab Tsereteli
THE MAIN PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF IMPLEMENTING INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

Summary  In the paper is discussed about the main problems of innovative activities that have been arising during   implementation of innovative activities in modern business. There are also concepted the process of innovation, innovative activity, technological innovation and innovative business. Its listed the main problems that have been hindering realization of innovative activities in the innovative business. In the paper is indicated the important  role of innovative activities in the process of producing  new products, goods and development of innovative businesses. There are also represented the prospects and recommendations for implementation of innovative activities in Georgia. The paper consists of annotations, keywords, introduction, main part, conclusion and literature. Keywords: Innovations; Technological innovation; Innovative activities; Problems of innovative activities; Investment in the fixed
2022-11-04
NINO TCHANTURIA
THE CHALLENGES OF COVID-19 AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIGITAL INDUSTRY

Summary  Two years have passed since the spread of COVID-19 created a new reality in the world. COVID-19 has caused a lot of problems around the world. Many people became unemployed, social distance became necessary, many businesses went bankrupt, travel was restricted and most importantly changed a person's daily life. One of the side effects of COVID-19 is the fact that the digital world has become more concentrated than it was before. More and more users are using the internet. This means that consumers are more dependent on digital marketing. It is clear that one of the major marketing influences of COVID-19 is the fact that there is so much information in the digital world that users are loading and often ignoring messages that are directed at a large target audience rather than directly at them. So the key for marketers is to ensure proper and close segmentation of the customer. We can say with confidence that Covid-19 has brought great benefits to e-commerce. This is
2022-11-04
Manana KharkheliGiorgi Morchiladze
CHALLENGES OF MANAGING MULTINATIONAL TEAMS IN GEORGIAN COMPANIES

Summary  It covers such a problematic issue as multinational staff management. Today the number of labor immigrants in Georgia is not large, this problem does not exist yet, but "tomorrow" it will definitely arise, and managers of Georgian companies should meet this situation so that they do not find it difficult to manage employees with foreign culture and do not repeat the examples. Which is what happens in other countries due to their incorrect and faulty management. The article lists the number of working days lost (missed) by the strikes and demonstrations of such mixed groups for this reason. The biggest loss for this reason is recorded in Iceland. The article emphasizes that the multinationalism of the team is a challenge for Georgian managers in terms of management complexity, but at the same time "it gives creativity and, therefore, a strategic advantage" and therefore they should not be afraid of this innovation. They need to get it, but they need to be prepared for
2022-11-04
Ramaz AbesadzeNana BibilashviliQristine (Ketevan) Kuratashvili
INFORMATIVEAND COMMUNICATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS IN GEORGIA

Summary The paper examines the current level of development of ICT technologies in Georgia and proposes the main ways of their further development. It is noted that both fixed and mobile telephone networks, as well as fixed broadband, fiber optic and mobile Internet services, Wi-Fi and DSL services are developing quite quickly in Georgia.The relevant institutional base has been created and is gradually being improved. Despite the progress, there is still much to be done in the direction of the development of information and communication technologies (ICT) in Georgia, In particular: the main strategic goal should be the development of electronic communication based on modern technologies within the country. creation of space and its integration in the global informational environment; to create new areas based on informational and communicational technologies: electronic commerce, telemedicine, distance learning, intelligent systems and others; turning information into goods,
2022-11-04
Maya Gogokhia
CURRENT TRENDS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECURITIES MARKET

Summary A capital market has been developing particularly rapidly in economically developing countries in recent years. Among the trends characteristic of the securities market at the present stage, along with computerization, globalization and covergation, improvement of the said market regulation quality is revealed. In world practice, there are different approaches to build a system of financial market regulation. It is a matter of debate whether a megaregulator should be established in the country, if it is preferable, several bodies should supervise various segments of the financial market. The existence of international institutions that develop guidelines, principles and standards for the development of the financial market is also important. A NBG has become a permanent member of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), which will increase the confidence and interest of international investors towards the Georgian securities market and have a
2022-11-04
Tariyel Musallim Gurbanov
FEATURES OF THE MODERN CRISIS IN THE LIGHT OF THE THEORY OF CYCLES

Annotation. Modern society strives for constant improvement of the standard and living conditions, which can only be provided by sustainable economic growth. However, long-term economic growth is not uniform, but is constantly interrupted by periods of economic instability. The economic history of the past two centuries provides us with a myriad of examples of the instability of the market economy. Periods of successful industrial development and general economic prosperity have always been followed by periods of recession, accompanied by a drop in production and unemployment. In general, the market economy has a tendency to repeat economic phenomena, which makes it possible to identify the "cyclical" nature of its development. Since the economic crises of the first half of the 19th century, economists have been trying to find the reasons and explain why this happens at regular intervals with stubborn consistency. The problem was of such great importance that almost no economist of
2022-11-04
Lia DvalishviliSOPIO DAVITASHVILI
THEORETICAL ISSUES OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Summary  Climate change is a global problem that leads to the formation of various natural and natural problems and in some cases the development of disasters. It is disasters that have a negative impact on disrupting the stable socio-economic life of countries and their population. Climate change is a natural process, although almost 95% of it is caused by human activity. As a new conceptual challenge, it was observed in the middle of the last century, when an unprecedented and irrelevant increase in the average annual temperature of the world was revealed. Although the climate has changed throughout the history of human existence, it has been a consistent and dynamic process. Uncontrolled human impact on the environment contributed to the acceleration of the climate change process. Climate change is recognized as the most pressing challenge facing humanity. The concern of modern society and science is that the global climate is changing rapidly and gradually becoming warmer.
2022-11-04
Tamar Dolidze
INDUSTRIALIZATION AS A MECHANISM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REAL SECTOR OF THE ECONOMY

Summary  The continuous process of industrialization primarily concerns the real sector of the economy. The real sector of the economy is a complex mechanism that creates a dynamic system of the economy. Industrialization is a continuous process involving industrial revolutions. The process of industrialization began in England during the Industrial Revolution. In economic science, industrialized countries of the first wave (Great Britain, USA) and the so-called countries of late industrialization (Germany, Japan) are known. The origin and development of industrialization is associated with the economic systems of the developed countries of the world. The process of industrialization is an expensive, budget-intensive, knowledge-intensive technological continuous process. Among the branches of the real sector of the economy, the branches of industry are most associated with the industrialization. Modern industry is the driving force of the digital industry, as in most
2022-11-04
ZAKHARIІ VARNALII OKSANA CHEBERYAKO NATALIIA MIEDVIEDKOVA OKSANA MYKYTIUK
SOCIAL SECURITY OF UKRAINE UNDER THE WAR

Annotation. The essence and content of the state’s social security and human social security are revealed, the role of economic security under the war is determined, the features of human social security under the war are investigated, threats to the critical state of social and economic security of Ukraine at the present stage are identified, priority goals and directions for ensuring human social security in war-time and the post-war period are revealed. Keywords: national security, economic security, state’s social security, human social security, threats to social security, ensuring social security, national interests.  Introduction The system of ensuring national security, including economic security and the priority social component, plays a leading role under the war. Currently, the essence of the category "security" has acquired a new systemic and deep meaning of protecting vital interests from risks, threats and dangers in Ukraine. According to the
2022-11-04
Tsitsino Tetrauli
THE ROLE OF INNOVATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECONOMY AND THE CHALLENGES OF HIGH TECHNOLOGIES

Summary  The article discusses the role of innovations in the economic development and considers the challenges of high
2022-11-04
ELSHAN ALI OGLU IBRAGIMOV
ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF THE STATE BUDGET AS A SOURCE OF RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Annotation.Regardless of the level of development and management system, each state faces certain tasks, one of which is to ensure sustainable economic development. In other words, since the emergence of states, their goals, tasks and functions have been formed. Of course, all this is non-standard in time and space, and differences and changes in this area are inevitable. In all cases, the state needs to have centralized funds to fulfill its political, organizational, legal, socio-economic tasks and functions. The main source of the centralized cash fund is the state budget. These factors make it an objective necessity to adopt the state budget as an economic category. In addition, in our time, the state budget is also one of the main financial guarantors of sustainable development of the national economy. The state budget, which is the material basis for the implementation of the tasks and functions of the state, occupies a special place in the system of financial relations, which
2022-11-04
Nazira KakauliaIrma Tkemaladze
STATE POLICY AND EMPLOYMENT TRANSFORMATION PERSPECTIVEIN GEORGIA

Summary  As we can see, since 2018, the measures of the countrys labor market policy have been fully focused on creating the necessary conditions for ensuring effective employment, at this stage it is difficult to evaluate the results, although the statistical data of 2019-2020 showed an improved situation, which would probably have continued in the coming years as well, if not for the pandemic crisis. In conclusion, it can be said that labor market policies are more "sensitive" in nature than other policies. Therefore, choosing the distortionist model emphasized by the World Bank or the interventionist model prioritized by the International Labor Organization will not lead us to the results that may have been achieved in other countries. In our opinion, it is recommended to use a more intermediate approach, which considers the labor market policy in the framework of the general economic policy, and the final goal of economic reforms is not only a high rate of economic growth,
2022-11-04
Dali Magrakvelidze
BANKRUPTCY AND ITS PREDICTION USING PROBABILISTIC MODELS

Summary  Innovation is the driver of economic progress, it benefits the consumer, the business and the economy as a whole. One of the main benefits of innovation is its contribution to economic growth. Despite their great economic importance, investing in innovation is a highly pressing problem, because it is difficult to attract investment in innovative projects due to the long-term nature of the investment and the lack of returns in the first stage, as well as the risk of unacceptable results. The life cycle of any investment, especially innovative, project is accompanied by the emergence and development of various risks, which reduce the effectiveness of its implementation and the possibility of practical non-implementation of the project. An important way to solve this problem is venture capital, which is an investment resource for securing innovative
2022-11-04
Marina MuchiashviliZAMIRA SHONIA
STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON SUSTAINABILITY OF GOVERNMENT DEBT OF GEORGIA

Summary  The effectiveness of a fiscal policy is a major factor in determining macroeconomic performance of the country. The Georgian government has sought to use its taxation, spending and borrowing powers to manage the allocation of scare resources to achieve economic stability and growth.Despite this impressive goals, the results of the fiscal policy in our country are far from favorable. Georgia nowadays is facing serious problems in this sphere. Decrease of the economic growth rates in Georgia and increased fiscal deficit and public debt (both foreign and internal) since 2012 year, especially in 2020 2021 years,  have made it actual to assess government debt sustainability in Georgia in medium and long terms. Following the present level of the public debt of Georgia, the work considers theevaluation of the fiscal sustainability of the country and identification and control of macroeconomic and fiscal risks influencing the fiscal sustainability, as one of the main
2022-11-04
Kristine Omadze
RECENT TRENDS OF MODERN LENDING AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE GREEN ECONOMY IN TERMS OF MORTGAGE AND GOVERNMENT LENDING

Annotation.Our research aims at describing the modern credit relationship and reflecting their impact on the more interesting topic - ecological environment and the development of green economy. In this regard, the most demanded type of credit - mortgage loan, whose long-term interest and desired interest rate is due to the growing demand for it. This determines the modern credit policy and the attitude of the public to the comfort and ecologically respecting the environment. In addition, the modern system of private and state lending is described as a combination of financial flows to satisfy the demands of the public to live in the green economy and environmentally clean environment Keywords: credit, mortgage, credit relationships, financial system, green economy  In the modern world, the dominant mechanism for the realization of the functioning of the financial system is the financial market,where the credit market is an integral part of it. It is well known that the market
2022-11-04
Rusudan PapaskiriNIKA TKEBUCHAVA
THE IMPACT OF THE INTERBANK PAYMENT SYSTEM ON CURRENT PROCESSES IN THE WORLD

Summary  In 2022, interbank transfers of international payments became especially relevant in different countries of the world. In this regard, many studies and observations are carried out in both international and local Georgian reality. The research is based on financial transfers in different countries of the world, analysis of its impact, which will be useful for Georgia. The article discusses the modern interbank settlement system, including SWIFT, its impact on the global financial system, and SWIFT's role in relation to financial sanctions. The aim of the paper is to present, based on the current economic processes in the world, how SWIFT operates in Georgia, to set priority ways for the development of interbank payment systems. The introduction of modern forms and methods of payment ensures the effective operation of the banking and financial system in Georgia. Development of international standards and technologies globally. Real-time transfers contribute to the
2022-11-04
Nino Zhorzhikashvili
ASSESSMENT OF MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF BASEL III STANDARDS AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS FOR GEORGIA

Summary  Georgia is a small, open economy with a high rate of dollarization, a current account deficit and an increasing dependence on international financial flows, which makes it vulnerable to global economic and financial trends. Accordingly, the sensitivity of the Georgian economy to global and regional economic shocks and changes in global financial conditions is high. In addition to the above, the banking and financial sector has a fairly large share in the economy of Georgia, therefore financial stability is very important for the stability of the economy as a whole and its normal functioning. The banking and financial sector of Georgia is facing certain challenges, which require the implementation of well-organized, implemented and coordinated policies to promote financial stability. In this direction, special attention is paid to the practical implementation of tools developed on the basis of Basel standards, their effectiveness and monitoring process. Keywords:
2022-11-04
Natia SurmanidzeAna Chagelishvili
NEGATIVEIMPACTOFTECHNOLOGICALPROGRESSONTHEEMPLOYMENTMARKET(AN EXAMPLEOFTHECONSTRUCTIONSECTOR)

Summary The classic examples of technological progress are mainly industrial revolutions and are often discussed through the 4th world technological revolution stage. The notion, that scientific and technological progress has an impact on the economy, is changing human life and the structure or size of the employment market has been supported and validated by numerous studies. However, like all events, technological progress has both positive and negative consequences. It is the critical discussion of technological progress that is the aim of the authors in the present paper, to achieve and in which the desk research method has been selected. The paper analyzes the secondary statistical information, based on which the perspectives, challenges and trends of the construction sector, as one of the largest employers in the country, are shown on the example of Georgia and Argentina. The paper provides some basis for further research and will be of interest to anyone interested in this
2022-11-04
Lasha Tabatadze
PRINCIPLES, ADVANTAGES AND IMPEDIMENTS OF CIRCULAR ECONOMICS

Summary  It should be noted that in the economy, as a rule, raw (natural) resources are extracted, converted into products and utilized. The circular economy, in contrast, aims to bridge the gap between the production and natural ecosystem cycles, in particular through the composting of various industrial (biodegradable) wastes. This approach contributes to the solution of such a serious problem of the modern world as the regeneration of natural systems, in other words, to rely on renewable energy sources. The article discusses the role and importance of the circular economy, its impact on ecosystems. On the example of developed countries (USA, UK, EU, Japan, Australia), the impact of the circular economy on the economic growth of countries is analyzed. Important conclusions, recommendations and much more are presented. Keywords: circular economy, green
2022-11-04
MARINA TABATADZE
STATE ANTI-CRISIS STRATEGY OF FINANCIAL STABILIZATION

Summary  Liberalization of the economy complicated the balanced development of world markets and caused a significant slowdown in growth rates, which led to changes in governments’ rational functioning strategies. The growth of the role of financial mechanisms and the dominance of the financial sector in the economic environment became important variables of development. The article discusses the author's strategies for effective management of integration processes. It analyses the impact of the government's anti-crisis policy on a stability socio-economic system, the governmental scenarios of crisis management, its forecast results and financial stabilization plans. The anti-crisis program of a state should reflect the crisis prevention strategy, which should differentiate the economic functions of the state and crisis management mechanisms according to the specific trends of current processes. It should aim at gaining stable development of the economy. The anti-crisis
2022-11-04
Nunu KistauriKetevan KveladzeMedea Melashvili
ABOUT THE PROBLEM OF SECURITY OF ECONOMIC INNOVATIONS

Summary  The work discusses one of the most important issues today, such as the security of economic innovations, which contributes to the sustainable and efficient operation of the country's economy, creating conditions for improving people's living standards, meeting national interests, etc. The main components of economic security are analyzed. It is noted that the level of national economic security of the state is mainly determined by the degree of its innovative development. Besides, the paper presents the 10 most important economic innovations that define the technological landscape in the world and contribute to future development. In addition, the most technologically developed innovative countries in 2022 are listed, where the presence of advanced scientific technologies in the modern information society is an important factor in ensuring national economic security and the development of the country in
2022-11-04
Malkhaz Chikobava
THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF TWO YEARS OF THE PANDEMIC AND THE PROSPECTS FOR A "GREAT RESET"

Summary  The article discusses the reasons for the scarcity and primitiveness of forecast calculations for 2022. According to analysts, there are several reasons for this. The optimistic forecasts proposed by economists at the end of 2019 turned out to be completely unrealistic. Most forecasters argued that the state of the global economy in 2020 will be better than in 2019. Growth in 2020 was expected to be in the 3 to 4 percent range. Instead, we got a complete collapse of the economy. Secondly, analysts and experts refrain from making any forecasts. Some of them even question the predictability of the economy due to such non-economic factors as “viruses” and other “infections”. It is precisely these “infections” that provoke blockages that hit the economy more than the collapse of the stock markets or the bankruptcy of the largest banks or companies. Under these conditions, the global economic outlook is dead, at least until the economy
2022-11-04
KHATUNA KHADURI
PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CRISIS CAUSED BY THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Summary The  COVID-19 pandemic. which has spread globally since 2020, has not only affected the health sector and destroyed the lives of millions of people, but has also dealt a major blow to all sectors of the world economy. Trade and investment flows have decreased, the global value chain has been disrupted, and the volume of exports and imports of industrial products, food raw materials and food products has decreased. The pandemic has created financial difficulties for both developing and developed countries. Not only were international traffic blocked, but the population was isolated from the outside world. The pandemic caused great damage to business and commodity production. Most companies were at risk of closing. Most of the people were left without jobs and income. Clearly, the economic crisis caused by the Covid Pandemic has also affected special economic zones, which are an effective tool for the country's economic growth, attracting foreign direct investment,
2022-11-04
Giorgi Kharshiladze
QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN GEORGIA AND ASPECTS OF MACROECONOMIC POLICY IMPACTING ON THEM

Summary  According to the common practice, the main task of any government is improving socio-economic situation of the population. Achieving this goal requires from the government  developing and implementingan effective economic policy that is not limited to the goods and services produced alone. During the transition period, when market mechanisms and institutions are still in the process of formation, it is important developing the right economic policies. Fiscal stimulus is one of the most important factors in assessing economic growth. The latter is one of the most important economic levers are in the hands of the government, which on the one hand, determines the macroeconomic situation of the country, and on the other hand the means of influencing economic crises. Monetary security macroeconomic policy issues can play an important role in economic growth. Consequently, their role is important in the process of achieving both short-term and long-term economic
2022-11-04
Vasil Khizanishvili
DETERMINANTS OF ITALIAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND THE PHENOMENON OF DUALISM IN THE MIRACLE YEARS (1950-63)

Summary  From 1950 to 1963, the Italian economy was growing at a faster pace than ever before. The growth rate, especially in 1958-63, was such that this phase became known as the ‘economic miracle’.This process was characterized by a number of political and socio-economic challenges.This concerned the strengthening and further weakening of the Left, the intensification of trade unions and their growing importance, export-import and wage policies.Ultimately, a major challenge for the country remained an eradicating the deep socio-economic disparities between northern and southern
2022-11-04
Lali Khurtsia
IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIC POLICY IN DEVELOPED ECONOMIES

Summary  Industrial policy is a strategic effort of the state to encourage economic transformations, to create appropriate incentives, the purpose of which is to increase productivity and economic activities both within sectors or within them. In other words, industrial policy is any selective state intervention that seeks to change the structure of production to increase the efficiency of those sectors that will contribute to the country's economic growth in the future, and which would not have happened if there were no encouraging steps taken by the state. At present, there is a debate in the economic opinion about which industrial sectors can go under the attention of the state industrial policy. The promotion of all industries by the state is not equally useful for development; Some industries may be good for mass employment but less conducive to technological development. In addition, industrial policy is a relatively demanding approach. For government policy to be
2022-11-04
Paata AroshidzeMARINA SHVANGIRADZETORNIKE AROSHIDZE
RAISING THE AWARENESS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR ON MODERN ENERGY-EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES AND ITS INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROCESSES OF ENERGY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Summary  In the post-pandemic period, great importance is given to the introduction of modern energy-efficient technologies, especially in the field of tourism, as tourism is one of the leading sectors of the Georgian economy. In October 2010, within an EU-initiated Covenant of Mayors, a conference dedicated to this initiative was held in Georgia, in particular in Tbilisi, emphasizing the importance of cities as complex systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Within the framework of the EU-defined energy efficiency implementation priorities, the municipality has been identified as the main driving force in the development and implementation of the Energy Sustainable Action Plan for Cities. By signing the Covenant of Mayors in 2011, Batumi has joined the initiative aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% up to 2020 - a goal that must be achieved in the light of the city's social and economic development. For the development of Batumi as a tourist city, the
2022-11-04
AYTKIN GASAN AKHUNDOVAGULNAR XANLAR SAMADOVA
DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC: RESEARCH AND EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Annotation. In nearly 400 days since the World Organization health care declares COVID-19 a pandemic, the world is and continues to fight for living with coronavirus and its consequences, which had a sagnificant impact to all spheres of economic activity, including the development of tourism. According to the WTO, the reduction in the number of tourist trips around the world has brought very large losses to the tourism industry. The spread of coronavirus infection has also damaged the tourism sector of Azerbaijan, primarily the hotel business, the activities of  tour operators and travel agencies. This article examines the devepment of tourism in Azerbaijan during the spread of  COVID-19, examines a set of tasks and measures adopted by the state to mitigate the consequences of the crisis and revive tourism activities. Key words: tourism development, crisis, COVID-19 pandemic, tough measures, restrictions, government support.  Introduction  Tourism, being one of
2022-11-04
DAVID BASIASHVILISlava Fetelava
STRUCTURAL AND REGIONAL ISSUES OF THE ECONOMY

Summary  The socio-economic problems faced by regions, the inequity of gross regional product, demography, business activities, and the sectorial economy are given in the article "Structural and regional issues of the economy". As well as  article covers the approaches of regional
2022-11-04
NATIA BERIDZE
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF THE PANDEMIC: NEW TRENDS AND ANTI-CRISIS MEASURES

Annotation.  The main trends in tourism development, which have emerged in the terms of the coronavirus pandemic, are analyzed in the paper. The anti-crisis measures to support the industry in the difficult period and experience of countering the spread of COVID-19 were considered. The borders opening and the international tourism recovery will be slow and uneven. The need to update the integration processes in the field of tourism is substantiated not only on the principles of mutual benefit and joint development, but also of mutual responsibility and preparedness for crises and their management. The research results can be used in the preparation or correction of conceptual, strategic and program documents for the tourism development both at the national and regional levels, especially in the post-COVID period. Keywords: tourism, pandemic, COVID-19, trends, anti-crisis measures  Introduction Since the beginning of the pandemic caused by the spread of coronavirus
2022-11-04
George Bregvadze
RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE PRICE INDEX IN GEORGIA

Summary  The paper discusses the residential real estate price index in Georgia. The prices of residential areas are shown according to the districts of Tbilisi. Analyzed reasons why prices are
2022-11-04
Lina Datunashvili
ASPECTS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN VEGETATION (WORLD EXPERIENCE)

Summary   In the paper, the innovative development of new technologies is considered as one of the important strategic directions on the path of sustainable development of agriculture (vegetation) and allows to effectively solve many problems in the field. Technical innovations are only a part of agriculture, and the introducte of more and more innovative technologies in agriculture allows to cultivate the soil through precision farming technologies, improve selection, organic production, introduce IT-technologies, make intensive use of digitization, automation and other technologies and increase yields. The article discusses examples of the realization of modern technological achievements in the field of horticulture (on the example of technologically developed innovative countries), with the help of which new programs are created and various measures are taken, related to the increase in the volume of food products produced in agriculture and the improvement of the
2022-11-04
TATULI DUSHUASHVILI
FINANCIAL STABILITY ANALYSIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY[1]

Summary  After the financial crisis of 2008, the level of corporate debt in the world continues to grow and reaches historic maximum in a number of countries, posing a potential threat to the sustainability of the business. Nearly half of the increased debt comes from emerging markets, a quarter of which is debt from non-financial corporations. While debt growth in some cases implies increased access to global capital markets, history has shown that high levels of debt relative to equity in corporate balance sheets can lead to losses and increase debt service burdens. This, in turn, can lead to creditworthiness, debt default risks, and high corporate default, which can spillover to the financial system (Chow, 2015). Consequently, the more important the sector is to the economy, the more important is its financial sustainability. The 2008 financial crisis has clearly shown the world the importance of the sustainability and successful functioning of the construction sector for
2022-11-04
Tabriz Abdulla Yadigarov
ASSESMENT OF THE ASSOCİATİVE ACTİVİTY OF MARİTİME TRANSPORT AND PORT İNFRASTRUCTURE İN AZERBAİJAN

Annotation.  As part of the study, the Evievs software package compared and assessed the financial and economic activities of Azerbaijan Caspian Shipping Company CJSC and Baku International Sea Trade Port CJSC for 2014-2019. Here, using entropy, which is a measure of uncertainty, the potential for expanding freight traffic in the maritime transport sector over 31 years was determined, taking into account the volume and usefulness of information on freight traffic for the period 1990-2020. Also, according to the statements of Azerbaijan Caspian Shipping Company CJSC, the impact of the depreciation rate calculated on the linear depreciation method applied to ships for fixed assets in the amount of 25% was analyzed. The risk of capital investments in shares issued were assessed by “Oil Fleet” and CJSC “Baku International Sea Trade Port”. Key words: sea transport, port infrastructure, capital investments, coefficient of variation, elasticity
2022-11-04
Medea MelashviliNunu KistauriKetevan Kveladze
SOME ISSUES OF SAFETY OF SOCIAL INNOVATIONS

Summary  The article discusses the relevance of the term "social innovations", which is actively used to better solve the social problems of the population and satisfy their social demands as much as possible. The multifaceted nature of this term and the need to use it in such areas as: health care, social services, education, unemployment, employment, reducing the level of poverty, improving the quality of life, migration, ecology, climate changes, etc., which are necessary to improve the level of well-being of the population, economic development and others are mentioned. The main directions used for the development of social innovations in the European Union are also highlighted. In addition, it is indicated about the necessity of social security protection of innovations and innovative
2022-11-04
KETEVAN OMANADZE
INTERNATIONAL MODELS OF THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM AND REFORMS OF THE GEORGIAN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

Summary The health system is the totality of all institutions, organizations, material and human resources. who participate in health promotion activities. For its successful functioning, it is necessary to effectively solve problems in the following main positions: personnel; infrastructure; equipment and medicines; material and technical provision; tracking progress; financing. As the World Health Organization points out, limited access to essential health care in many developing countries is due to the poor state of their health systems. WHO emphasizes that in order to make a difference in the health status of the world's population, governments must create strong and effective health systems, disease prevention and treatment for all people, regardless of race, nationality, social status, gender and other aspects. Key words: health care, reforms, international
2022-11-04
Ketevan KveladzeMamuka KhuskivadzeMedea MelashviliNunu Kistauri
ASPECTS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN TOURISM SERVICES

Summary  The article discusses one of the current issues such as the importance of the innovative development of modern technologies in tourism services, which contributes to the sustainable and efficient operation of the country's economy, the increase in the living standards of the population, the full satisfaction of the needs of consumers in the field of tourism, the development of new tourist destinations and tourist destinations, the existing renovation of tourist facilities, etc. It is also emphasized that the full realization of the tourist potential is impossible without the formation and introduction of new innovative approaches to the field of tourism, which is determined by the degree of innovative economic development of the country. The role of the pandemic in the complete digitization of the tourism sphere in the modern conditions of the development of innovative technologies is also analyzed. In addition, the paper presents those important technological
2022-11-04
DAVID CHELIDZE
PENSION REFORM AS A LEVER FOR THE COUNTRYS ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

Summary  Given the standard of living and budgetary interests of the country's population, the study focuses on the specifics of the pension reform launched in Georgia and the effective use of funds mobilized in the pension agency. After reviewing the definitions of taxes in international organizations, academic circles and a number of legislative acts, an opinion has been presented on the controversial nature of imposing a pension contribution obligation on employers. Based on the legal framework regulating the activities of the Pension Agency and the analysis of the financial results of the Agency's activities, an opinion is offered on the improvement of the investment activities of the Agency. Based on the analysis of the statistical data of the country's energy system, in order to ensure the growth of the financial assets of the Energy Generation and Pension Agency, an opinion is presented on investing the financial assets mobilized at the disposal of the Agency in new
2022-11-04
Mamuka Khuskivadze
SOME ISSUES OF THE OPTIMAL USAGE OF FOREST RESOURCES OF GEORGIA

Summary  The article discusses some issues of the optimal usage of forest resources in Georgia and presents the corresponding economic-mathematical model of this
2022-11-04
Nata DavlasheridzeShota Tvauri
PREREQUISITS OF THE NEW TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION 2022: US EU China

Summary  The paper analyzes the most significant materials reflecting the state of high technology in the United States, the European Union and China. The measures that these countries are going to take in order to gain an advantage in this priority direction are considered, which, undoubtedly, is of great interest to Georgia as
2022-11-04
Lia TotladzeTamar TapladzeGivi Veshapeli
DETERMINANTS OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY: EASTER PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES ANALYSIS

Summary  The paper presentsthe analysis of the determinants of innovative activity. The paper discusses and characterizes macro and micro-determinants of innovative activity. Macro-determinants include the indicators calculated for the evaluation of innovation activity, and from the micro-perspective - the theoretical and quantitative models considered in the economic literature, which describe innovation activity depending on the indicators such as firm size, market structure, etc. The study also presents the analysis of the dynamics of the macro indicators and characteristics for EaP Countries and especially for Georgia. Based on the analysis, the relevant conclusions are presented and ways to enhance innovative activity are identified. Key Words:  Innovation Activity;  Global Competitiveness Index; Global Innovation
2022-11-04
Zurab Nozadze
INTERNATIONAL INNOVATIVE COOPERATION AS A FACTOR OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL INNOVATIVE SYSTEM

Summary  The article discusses international innovative cooperation as a factor of the development of a national innovative
2022-11-04
Rusudan KvaratskheliaLevan Kikilashvili
PRODUCTION OF GEORGIAN WHEAT-GRASS POWDER AND HERBAL TEA (BUSINESS CASE)

Summary  The article includes Georgian Products – wheatgrass powder and vegetable tea production the meaning, Miss appropriate parties as human's for health as well of Kakheti of the region economic strengthening and environment protection at an angle product is produced Georgian, endemic species of Wheat biologically clean grains biological with treatment cited from of wheatgrass information with usefulness it the world level of scientists position research there is our product manufacturers between the company biotechnologies, scientists, whose since 2010 are working Georgian, endemic species of wheat collection on creation, natural with treatment wheatgrass to bring and wheatgrass information preparation the best on technologies. Scientists team, them between mentioned of the article Author since 2005 works biological with Innovative treatment products on making. Team significant role is intersected endemic species of wheat collection, as well biologically clean
2022-11-04
Tengiz Kavtaradze
ISSUES OF INNOVATIVE PERFECTION OF WOOL SHAVING IN GEORGIAN SHEEP BREEDING

Summary  The paper shows that sheep shearing is a very difficult and responsible activity. Proper care is not given to mastering shaving skills. In Georgian sheep breeding, sheep shearing is carried out with less organization, poor quality, damage to sheep and large losses of wool. This is due to the fact that shaving uses unsuitable shaving rules and unsatisfactory technology. Innovative conditions for making quality wool are less observed in our sheep shearing system; Proper attention is not paid to mastering shaving skills. It ends up at the undesirable level of equipment and labor organization. Wool quality deteriorates during shaving. There is wool corrosion-dirt, waste and many more. There are large cases of damage to sheep, wounds, trauma, mutilation and death. Rough shaving causes a large loss of wool, increasing labor demand and shaving costs. The paper shows that the existing rule of sheep shearing can be radically changed from an innovative point of view. Wool
2022-11-04
Nino Gomelauri
THE SPREAD OF THE SANDWICH SYNDROME IN GEORGIA AND ITS IMPACT

Summary  The article deals with the empirical assessment of the spread of the “Sandwich Syndrome” in Georgia and its socio-demographic characteristics by using the data obtained from the sociological surveys conducted on the issues of family problems on the part of the Institute of demography and sociology Ilia State University during 2013-2019. Furthermore, it analyzes the impact of the “Sandwich Syndrome” on population’s employment, income and health. The phenomenon, when humans experience the pressure of obligations and responsibilities from both sides, is designated the “Sandwich Syndrome”. Women experience the mentioned phenomenon twice more often than men – the spread of the “Sandwich Syndrome” is nearly two times higher among the women than among the men. The “symptom of the Sandwich Generation” has a sharply defined gender characteristic in Georgia. The survey could not identify the important changes
2022-11-04
Tamar ZirakashviliMEGI KHORBALADZE
SYSTEMATIC APPROACH OF FORMATION OF STUDENTS CONTINGENT AND ITS ANALYSIS

Summary  So, deriving from the above-mentioned, we are reviewing the formation process of students contingent in university from the position of systemic approach, taking into consideration all the main factors that have  influence on the given fact. We emphasize attention on systemic approach, clear setting of the task and defining the means of its solving. We can conclude that the problem connected with student’s formation is still actual and deserves attention. It is necessary to review the social-pedagogical, demographic and economic aspects of the university contingent
2022-11-04
Khatuna Todua
FOOD AID FOR SOCIALLY VULNERABLE POPULATION – WORLD EXPERIENCE AND GEORGIA

Summary  The necessity of food aid as of an important element of state guardianship of modern market economy, which partially compensates income and social inequality and minimizes social deprivation, is undeniable.  The principles and mechanisms of domestic national (for example, the United States of America) and supranational (for example, the European Union) state food aid to the poor and other vulnerable groups of the population in developed countries are very clear and effective. Besides the state, NGOs also play the role in the systems of state food aid. For example, Feeding America is a United States-based nonprofit organization that is a nationwide network of more than 200 food banks that feed more than 46 million people through food pantries, soup kitchens, shelters, and other community-based agencies. The Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD) supports EU countries′ actions to provide food and/or basic material assistance to the most
2022-11-04
Lela Menabdishvili
NATURAL INCREASE OF THE POPULATION OF GEORGIA DURING THE PANDEMIC

Summary  Population growth and reproduction are determined by the ratio between birth rates and mortality rates. This ratio is called natural increase. Depopulation in the country began 28 years before the pandemic broke out. The rate of natural increase has been declining since 1992. In 2000-2004, the natural increase of the population was practically zero. This process is mainly associated with a significant reduction in the birth rate. The birth rate in the XXI century was the highest in 2014. It has been declining every year. The pre-pandemic rate is higher than the pandemic rate. In 2016, the birth rate decreased by 4.7% compared to the previous year. In 2020 compared to the previous year by 3.8%. In 2021 by 1.2%.In the country, the birth rate decline is not linked to a pandemic. However, the pandemic has affected the increase in mortality rates. It is about in 2021. The death toll in 2021 is 18.5% higher than the death toll in 2020. If, before to the pandemic, natural
2022-11-04
Nino Mamuladze
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS IS SOCIAL NETWORKS

Summary  Studying customer behavior is the most important task of marketing. Without its studies, it is impossible to create a product or service that will be able to take its place in a competitive market. Consumers differ in psychology, degree of perception, attitude towards goods / services, and their consumer behavior is variable at the expense of different motivations. It is one of the most important circumstances to study these changes, to determine the behavior of consumers and to identify the factors that affect them, which influence the behavior of consumers on the social network. In the modern marketing world, the user is distinguished by activity on the social network, is informed about different types of information about the company's activities and specifics, reads feedback and evaluates the activities of various brands. One of the main tasks of marketers is to identify user behavior on a social network and specifically to determine what circumstances the user
2022-11-04
Nana Menabdishvili
DIVORCE IN THE YOUTH OF GEORGIA(XXI CENTURY)

Summary  The growing trend in divorce rates dates back to the last century. This is a problem that is common to many countries, Georgia is among these countries. The arithmetic average of the last 21 years of divorce in the 21st century is equal to 2,576.  The number of divorces of young people (-20 - 29) in the country has increased 7 times from 2001 to 2019.  Compared to last year, the increase was 6 times. We think the decline was due to a pandemic.  During the pandemic, the number of divorces decreased. This was even more noticeable in 2020. The number of divorces in 2019 is 1.5 times higher than the same figure in 2020 and 1.2 times in 2021. We have identified three age groups of young people: -20; 20-24; 24-29. More or less, a growing trend of divorce was evident in all three of them. The highest growth rate is characterized by the 24-29 age group. They also have the highest divorce rate (68.5%).  They are followed by a group of 20-24 year olds and then
2022-11-04
TAMILA NUTSUBIDZE
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION AND CHALLENGES OF PROVIDING PENSION COVERAGE TO ALL

Annotation. The article reviews analytical literature on the demographic challenges worldwide. The article aims to contribute to the debate over the increasing necessity to improve social security of elderly workers and retirees both in developed and developing countries. The ways to make government-led pension systems sustainable should be discussed further as well as the alternative ways to improve private efforts focusing on ensuring financial inclusion of workers.  Nowadays most countries are seeing significant population aging. Population ageing as a global demographic trend has already influenced social processes, patterns and structures such as labor, family, work and employment, etc. The relevant literature concludes that population ageing is due to increasing longevity; low and below-replacement rate fertility and, also emigration trends that significantly impacts in particular smaller countries, for instance in Eastern Europe (OECD, 2013). Figure 1 and Figure 2 show
2022-11-04
Elene Chikovani
LABOR MARKET POLICY IN GEORGIA: EXISTING CHALLENGES AND FUTURE TASKS

Summary  Article is devoted to the problems of formation labor market policy in Georgia. Critically analyses measures conducted by the government of Georgia towards the job placement and social protection of the unemployed persons. Analyses main deficiencies of the active and passive labor market policies integrated with family assistance social protection programs of vulnerable groups of population. Evaluates the positive and negative sides of the measures conducted by the Government of the country toward the creation of the temporary unqualified public work places and subsidized by the Governments labor remuneration programs. The only possibility of the orientation such kind programs for the short run periods are substantiated. Augured priority of the elaborating medium and long run programs for the future periods and action plans are recommended, which assumes interrelation active and passive labor market policies with strategic directions of the development of the innovative
2022-11-04